Acute Reference Doses for Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals as of 31 March 2016

This document sets out the acute reference doses (in units of mg/kg bodyweight) for agricultural and veterinary chemicals used on food producing crops or animals, and is current up to 31 March 2016

Page last updated: May 2016

Current as of 31 March 2016

Printable version of Acute Reference Doses for Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals (PDF 822 KB)

Commonwealth of Australia 2016

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The Office of Chemical Safety
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ARfD List

The ‘ARfD List’ provides a tabulation of acute reference doses (ARfDs; in units of mg/kg bodyweight) for each agricultural or veterinary (agvet) chemical listed, together with the NOEL (no-observed-effect level) and safety factor used. The 'Study Details' column provides information about the study, including study type, the LOEL (lowest-observed-effect level) and the toxicology observations upon which the NOEL and LOEL were based. The ‘Comments’ column may (1) provide further information about the basis for establishing a particular ARfD; (2) advise that an ARfD is not necessary (eg. the compound has very low acute toxicity) or not warranted (eg. the compound is not intended for application to crops or food-producing animals); (3) indicate that the ARfD has been adopted from that set by the WHO/FAO Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR); or (4) provide any other relevant information. The ‘Date Set’ column indicates when particular ARfDs were set by the Office of Chemical Safety.

For some chemicals, longer-term rather than acute dosing studies have been used to establish the ARfD. In these cases, the NOEL was selected on the basis of toxicological effects observed after a single dose.

Compound
Country Date Set ARfD
(mg/kg bw)
Safety
Factor
NOEL
(mg/kg/bw) or [LOEL]
Study Details
Comments
Abamectin Australia 18/11/2003 0.005 100 0.5 Based on foetal abnormalities (clubbed forefeet) at the next highest dose of 1 mg/kg bw/d in a rabbit developmental study and using a 100-fold safety factor.  
Acetamiprid Australia 27/07/2001 0.1 100 10 Rat single-dose gavage neurotoxicity study – reductions in locomotor activity at the next highest dose of 30 mg/kg bw.  
Acetyl isovaleryltylosin tartrate Australia 21/08/2006 1.86 200 360 The ARfD was 1.86 mg/kg bw based on the clinical signs observed at the lowest dose of 360 mg/kg bw in an acute oral study in mice and a 200-fold safety factor.  
Acibenzolar-S-methyl Australia 23/04/2002 0.01 1000 [10] Haemorrhagic discharge in dams at LOEL of 10 mg/kg bw/d in a rat developmental study.  
Aldicarb Australia 15/12/1999 0.001 10 0.01 Human acute study; significant and dose-related RBC AchE inhibition at the next highest dose of 0.025 mg/kg bw.  
Amicarbazone Australia 20/04/2006 0.1 100 10    
Aminopyralid Australia 28/09/2005 0.3 100 26 Based on a developmental toxicity study in rabbits using a 100-fold safety factor.  
Atrazine Australia 05/12/2000         ARfD not necessary; low acute toxicity.
Azadirachtin Australia 28/05/2004         ARfD not established; insufficient information.
Azafenidin Australia 04/07/2001 0.016 1000 16 Increased incidence of resorptions (predominantly early), reduced bodyweights for viable fetuses, and an increased incidence of skeletal variations in a rat developmental study at the next highest dose of 24 mg/kg bw/d.  
Azimsulfuron Australia 09/09/2002 1.5 100 150 Rabbit gavage developmental study; deaths occurred in those animals exhibiting severe weight loss as well as a rapid decrease in food consumption at the next highest dose of 500 mg/kg bw/d.  
Azinphos-methyl Australia 05/12/2000 0.075 10 0.75 No RBC AchE inhibition or clinical signs at 0.75 mg/kg bw (F) and up to 1 mg/kg bw (M) in an acute human study.  
Bacillus licheniformis Australia 09/05/2002         ARfD not necessary; the micro-organisms are not used in the manufacture of food for human consumption.
Bacillus sphaericus strain 2362 Australia 09/05/2003         ARfD not established; appropriate toxicological studies were not available.
Bacillus subtilis Australia 09/05/2002         ARfD is not necessary; the micro-organisms are not used in the manufacture of food for human consumption.
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. thuringiensis serotype 1 (strain MPPL 002) Australia 28/08/2003         ARfD not necessary; compound is a naturally occurring organism and residues from its use on sheep are likely to be indistinguishable from naturally occurring background levels of the organism.
Benomyl Australia 12/02/2003 0.06 100 6.25 In three developmental studies in rats in which benomyl was given by gavage, a clear NOEL for micro-/anopthalmia was 6.25 mg/kg bw/d. This developmental anomaly can potentially arise following a single exposure during foetal organogenesis.  
Bentonite (Montmorillonite sodium) Australia 13/05/2002         ARfD not necessary; low acute toxicity.  Acute intake of residues unlikely to present risk.
Beta-cypermethrin Australia 19/03/2002 0.05 100 4.7 Clinical signs (whole body tremors, head nodding, “lip-licking”, subduedness, ataxia, agitation and a high-stepping gait) in 3-mo dog feeding study.  
Bifenazate Australia 12/12/2002 0.3 100 33 The NOEL (200 ppm; equal to 33.9/46.7 mg/kg bw in males/females) was based on clinical signs in a 4 week dietary study in mice, seen at the next highest dose of 1000 ppm (154.8/180 mg/kg bw/d in males/females).  
Bupivacaine Australia 10/06/2008 1.5     In the absence of suitable data to permit a more refined estimate of the acute reference doses, the ARfD was considered to be equivalent to the ADI.  
Buprofezin Australia 31/10/2006 0.5 100 50 Based on a developmental study in rabbits, incorporating a safety factor of 100  
Boscalid Australia 15/08/2003 3 100 300 Developmental studies in rats and rabbits; based on foetal ossification effects at the next highest dose of 1000 mg/kg/day in both species.  
Butafenacil Australia 19/11/2001         ARfD not necessary; low toxicity following single dose and short-term administration in animals, including studies on developmental and neurotoxicity.
Captan Australia 18/05/2007 0.1 100 10 Incresed skeletal variants in foetuses at the next highest dose of 30 mg/kg bw/d. Maternotoxicity NOEL was also 10 mg/kg bw/d based on reduced body weight and food consumption in dams.
Carbaryl Australia 13/12/2002 0.01 100 1 13-week rat subchronic neurotoxicity study; based on behavioural indications of autonomic neurotoxicity and brain, plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterase depression and development at the LOEL of 10 mg/kg bw/d.  
Carbendazim Australia 15/02/2011 0.05 1000 50 Testicular toxicity observed in an acute male reproductive study in rats following single-dose gavage dose of 50 mg/kg bw, the lowest dose tested The ARfD is also supported by an acute in vivo genotoxicity study, with increased frequencies of micronuclei were observed in spermatids at a LOEL of 50 mg/kg bw
Cefovecin sodium Australia 08/12/2006         Because the product is intended to be used by veterinary professionals or under their supervision, in non-food producing animals, an establishment of an ADI or ARfD for cefovecin sodium was not considered necessary.
Ceftiofur (as free acids and salts) Australia 07/11/2011 0.3 1000 300 Clinical anaemia in a 52-day dog study. LOEL = 300 /mg/kg/day. Product is intended to be used in food producing animals (cattle).
Cephalexin Australia 22/11/2000         ARfD not necessary; therapeutic dose for adults ranges between 1-4 g/day.
Cetrimide Australia 10/06/2008 1.5     In the absence of suitable data to permit a more refined estimate of the acute reference doses, the ARfD was considered to be equivalent to the ADI.  
Chlorfenvinphos Australia 05/12/2000 0.02 100 1.9 Inhibition of RBC AchE activity in a 14-day mouse study. LOEL = 20.3 mg/kg bw.  
Chlormequat Australia 23/06/2005 0.07 100 7.5 2-year dietary dog study; a NOEL of 300 ppm (7.5 mg/kg bw/day) was based on excessive salivation and muscle weakness at the next highest dose of 1000 ppm.  
Chlorpyrifos Australia 05/12/2000 0.1 10 1 Single-dose human study; based on inhibition of RBC AchE activity. LOEL = 2.0 mg/kg bw.  
Cinmethylin Australia 20/08/2003 0.3 100 30 Rat developmental study; maternal NOEL based on clinical signs at the next highest dose of 300 mg/kg/d, including excess salivation and urine stained abdominal fur.  
Clothianidin Australia 01/08/2003 0.2 100 25 Irwin screen CNS effects test in mice and a developmental study in rabbits; based on depressed motor activity at the next highest dose of 50 mg/kg bw; and deaths/moribund sacrifices and/or clinical signs at the next highest dose of 75 mg/kg bw/d.  
Codling Moth Granulosis Virus Australia 25/11/2002 0 0     ARfD not necessary; unlikely to be pathogenic to humans or to present a toxicological hazard to consumers of treated produce.
Copper pyrithione Australia 02/10/2009         An ARfD is not considered necessary because copper pyrithione has a low acute oral toxicity in monkeys with an LD50 of >1000mg/kg bw/d
Cyclodextrins Australia 31/07/2003         ARfD not necessary; compound has low acute toxicity.
Cyflufenamid Australia 29/05/2012 0.1 100 10 The ARfD was established at 0.1 mg/kg bw based on a NOEL of 10 mg/kg bw/d from an oral rabbit developmental study for both maternal (decreased body weight gain and food consumption) and developmental toxicity (increased minor skeletal variations/abnormalities) and using a default 100-fold safety factor.  
Cyhalofop-butyl Australia 28/01/2005 0.03 100 3 13-week rat study; based on liver effects following one week of treatment, at the next highest dose of 10 mg/kg bw/d.  
Derquantel Australia 27/05/2011 0.01 100 1 The ARfD for derquantel was established at 0.01 mg/kg bw based on a NOEL of 1 mg/kg bw in an acute oral toxicity study in dogs and using a 100-fold safety factor.  
Diazinon Australia 20/12/2002 0.01 20 0.2 Single-dose human study, with significant RBC AchE inhibition at the next highest dose of 0.21 mg/kg bw. Additional safety factor of 2 because of the limited nature of the study and the closeness of the NOEL and LOEL.
2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid Australia 12/09/2006 0.8 100 75 Acute neurotoxicity study in rats; gait/coordination effects and decreased motor activity at next highest dose of 250 mg/kg bw and using a safety factor of 100.  
2,4-dichlorprop-P Australia 18/09/2006 0.2 100 20 Developmental effects observed, but only in the presence of maternotoxicity. An increased incidence of skeletal variations classified as rudimentary cervical ribs were observed in rat foetuses at the LOEL and above (greater than or equal to 80 mg/kg bw/d).  
Dichlorprop-P Australia 18/09/2006 0.2 100 20 Developmental effects were observed, but only in the presence of maternotoxicity. An increased incidence of skeletal variations classified as rudimentary cervical ribs were observed in rat foetuses at the LOEL and above (greater than or equal to 80 mg/kg  
Dichlorvos Australia 06/04/2004 0.1 10 1 Single oral dose study in human males; based on no inhibition of RBC ChE activity at 1 mg/kg bw, the only dose tested.  
Difethialone Australia 17/04/2007 0.0005 1000 0.48 Based on an acute oral toxicity study in rats  
Dimethenamid-P Australia 12/08/2003 0.25 100 25 Rat developmental study (dimethenamid-P) and a rat 4-day oral study (racemic dimethenamid); based on foetal toxicity signs at the next highest dose of 150 mg/kg bw/d in rats and liver toxicity at 100 mg/kg bw/d and above in the short-term study. Note that dimethenamid-P, the S-isomer, and racemic compound had equivalent toxic effects at similar dose levels.
Dimethoate Australia 23/11/2010 0.02 10 0.2 The NOEL of 0.2 mg/kg/bw/d for ChE inhibition in whole blood observed in the human volunteer study, with a 10-fold safety factor for intra-species variation.  
Diphacinone Australia 04/02/2005         ARfD not necessary; non-food use chemical.
Diquat Australia 28/05/2002 0.05 500 26.5 Dog acute oral study; Clinical signs observed at 53 mg/kg bw. Additional safety factor because of the uncertainty surrounding possible reversibility of GIT effects. 8 days after a single dose of 26.5 mg/kg bw.
Dirlotapide Australia 30/04/2008       This product is to be used only as a veterinary medicine in non-food producing animals and the establishment of an ADI and ARfD is not considered necessary.  
Doramectin Australia 14/10/2002 0.02 100 1.5 Maternal toxicity was observed at 1.5 and 3 mg/kg bw/d in a rabbit develop. Study with major malformations (cleft palate, phocomelia, syndactyly and coelosomia) observed in fetuses at 3 mg/kg bw/d and delayed ossification observed at 1.5 and 3 mg/kg bw/d.  
Diuron Australia Feb 2005 0.007 100 0.7 A 6-month rat dietary study.  
Endosulfan Australia 05/12/2000 0.02 100 2 Developmental effects, reduced food consumption and clinical signs (tonoclonic convulsions, hypersalivation) in a rat developmental study. LOEL = 6.0 mg/kg bw/d.  
Enterococcus faecium Australia 04/09/2002         ARfD not necessary; not for use in the manufacture of food for human consumption.
Epoxiconazole Australia 16/04/2002 0.2 100 20 Developmental studies revealed an increased incidence of resorptions in rabbits and skeletal variations (rudimentary ribs) in rats at 45 and 80 mg/kg bw/d. NOEL was 15 mg/kg bw/d in rats and 20 mg/kg bw/d in rabbits.
Ethametsulfuron-methyl Australia 17/01/2001         ARfD not necessary; low toxicity following single dose and short-term administration in animals, including studies on developmental toxicity.
1,2-Ethanediamine polymer with (chloromethyl) oxirane and N-methylmethanamine Australia 09/12/2003         ARfD not necessary; as it is not intended for use in food production.
Ethoxysulfuron Australia 12/05/2004 0.2 100 25 Rabbit developmental study; based on decreased or no defecation at the next highest dose of 63 mg/kg bw/d and above.  
Ethyl formate Australia 26/11/2003         ARfD not established; there were no suitable studies on which to base an ARfD.
Etoxazole Australia 17/12/2003 25 100 2500 Acute oral micronucleus test in mice; based on clinical signs (piloerection, hunched posture, abnormal gait and lethargy) at the next highest dose of 5000 mg/kg bw. The ARfD is also supported by an acute oral single dose study in mice, with clinical signs observed at 5000 mg/kg bw.
Fenamiphos Australia 7/11/2005 0.003 100 0.25 Inhibition of RBC AchE activity in an acute oral dosing study in dogs at the next highest dose of 0.5 mg/kg bw.  
Fenbuconazole Australia 14/04/2003 0.2 100 20 4-week dog dietary study. NOEL selected on the basis of transient weight loss and clinical chemistry changes at the next highest dose of 40 mg/kg bw/d.  
Fenitrothion Australia 05/12/2000 0.03 10 0.33 No inhibition of plasma and RBC ChE activity in a single-dose human study.  LOEL >0.33 mg/kg bw.  
Fipronil Australia 19/06/2006 0.02 100 2.5 Combined NOEL from two acute oral neurotoxicity studies of fipronil in rats, based on reduced footsplay at the next highest dose of 5 mg/kg bw. This is a group value to cover fipronil, desulfinyl fipronil, fipronil sulphide and fipronil sulphone.
Firocoxib Australia 01/09/2004         ARfD not necessary; not for use in food-producing animals.
Flonicamid Australia 07/06/2012 0.025 100 2.5 Rabbit developmental study; based on abnormal lung lobation and absent kidney and ureter in foetuses at the next highest dose of 7.5 mg/kg bw.  
Florasulam Australia 26/05/2009         ARfD was not established as it was considered unlikely to present an acute hazard.
Florfenicol Australia 04/01/2001         ARfD not necessary; structural analogs of florfenicol have a long history of therapeutic use without acute effects.
Flumethrin Australia 04/09/2001         ARfD not established; not possible to establish an ARfD from available acute studies.
Flumiclorac pentyl Australia 08/12/2004         ARfD not necessary; has no significant toxicity after a single or few doses.
Flumioxazin Australia 12/12/2002 0.03 100 3 NOEL was based on embryo/foetal developmental toxicity in a rat oral developmental study with increased incidences of cardiovascular abnormalities at the next highest dose of 10mg/kg bw/d.  
Flunixin meglumine Australia 01/08/2002 0.02 100 2 6-week study in rats; clinical signs (reduced activity) at the next highest dose of 4mg/kg bw/d.  
Flutolanil Australia 28/08/2001         ARfD not necessary; compound has low toxicity after acute and short-term administration.
Gamma-cyhalothrin Australia 12/08/2003 0.005 100 0.5 Rat developmental study; based on clinical signs of toxicity, decreased body weight gains and food consumption, observed in dams at the next highest dose of 2 mg/kg bw/day.  
Glufosinate ammonium Australia 28/08/2001         ARfD not necessary; low acute oral toxicity.
Halofuginone Australia 16/06/2006 0.0003 100 0.025 No studies have been submitted that are suitable for setting an ARfD. Therefore the same study and NOEL that was used to set the ADI was also used to set the ARfD.  
Hexaflumuron Australia 31/08/2001         ARfD not necessary; compound has low acute toxicity.
Imazalil Australia 29/01/2007 0.05 100 5.0 Based on two developmental studies in rabbits  
Iminoctadine trialbesilate Australia 22/12/2004         ARfD not necessary; clinical signs were only observed in mice and rats at 1260 mg/kg bw and no adverse effects were observed in rats at 800 mg/kg bw.
Indoxacarb Australia 30/05/2008 0.1 100 12.5 Based on an acute neurotoxicty study in rats.  
Ivermectin Australia 29/07/2003 0.01 10 0.15 Human therapeutic study; based on dose of 0.15 mg/kg bw, at which level no teratogenicity or significant ivermectin related toxicity appear to have been observed across some millions of patients over a period of many years. A number of studies in humans support the selection of the 0.15 mg/kg bw dose.
Ketoprofen Australia 29/09/2000 0.001 100 0.1 Inhibition of platelet aggregation in rabbits after single dose. LOEL= 0.5 mg/kg bw.  
Lactobacillus acidophilus Australia 04/09/2002         ARfD not necessary; the micro-organisms are used in the manufacture of food for human consumption.
Lactobacillus brevis Australia 04/09/2002         ARfD not necessary; the micro-organisms are used in the manufacture of food for human consumption.
Lactobacillus casei Australia 04/09/2002         ARfD not necessary; the micro-organisms are used in the manufacture of food for human consumption.
Lactobacillus plantarum Australia 04/09/2002         ARfD not necessary; the micro-organisms are used in the manufacture of food for human consumption.
Lignocaine Australia 10/06/2008 0.009     In the absence of suitable data to permit a more refined estimate of the acute reference doses, the ARfD was considered to be equivalent to the ADI.  
Mandipropamid Australia 09/04/2010         An ARfD is not necessary because mandipropamid has no significant toxicity after a single or few doses.
Maldison Australia 12/04/2005 1.5 10 15 Acute oral study in humans; based on inhibition of RBC and plasma cholinesterase activity. NOEL at the highest tested dose.
Marbofloxacin Australia 20/05/2003         ARfD not necessary; for use in companion animals only.
Mecoprop Australia 17/01/2001 0.5 100 50 Maternotoxicity and foetotoxicity in a rat developmental study. LOEL = 100 mg/kg bw/d.  
Mecoprop-p Australia 17/01/2001 0.5 100 50 Maternotoxicity and foetotoxicity in a rat developmental study.  LOEL = 100 mg/kg bw/d.  
Melaleuca oil Australia 12/08/2010 10 100 1000 Based on an in vivo micronucleus study in mice using a default safety factor of 100  
Meloxicam Australia 04/08/2004 0.004 10 0.04 Human study; based on a pharmacological no effect level of 2.5 mg meloxicam/person/d (0.04 mg/kg bw/d) due to observations of individual isolated minor deviations in the placebo & 5 mg meloxicam groups. This is supported by a pharmacological NOEL of 0.4 mg/kg bw for prostaglandin synthesis inhibition in rats given single oral doses.
Mesosulfuron-methyl Australia 27/05/2002 2 1000 [2000] Rat acute tox study; clinical signs of neurotoxicity at LOEL = 2000mg/kg bw.  
Mestotrione Australia 22/09/2011 0.1 1000 100 The ARfD for mesotrione was established at 0.1 mg/kg bw/d based on a LOEL of 100 mg/kg bw/d in an oral developmental toxicity study in NZW rabbits, using a refined 1000-fold safety factor consisting of safety factors of 10 for each of intraspecies and interspecies variation, and a safety factor of 10 for gaps in the database (i.e. use of a LOEL in the absence of a NOEL).  
Metarhizium Anisopliae var. Acridum (isolate FI-985) Australia 04/09/2003         ARfD not established; due to inadequate data.
Methamidophos Australia 30/01/2004 0.003 100 0.3 Acute neurotoxicity study in rats; based on plasma, erythrocyte and brain ChE inhibition at the next highest dose of 0.6 mg/kg bw/d.  
Methidathion Australia 31/05/2004 0.01 100 1 Rat acute neurotoxicity study; based on RBC and brain ChE activity inhibition at the next highest dose of 4 mg/kg bw. Supported by the NOEL of 1 mg/kg bw for brain ChE inhibition in a rat acute oral toxicity study.
Methiocarb Australia 05/12/2001 0.03 100 3 Clinical signs in maternal rats in a developmental study. LOEL = 10 mg/kg bw/d.  
Methoxyfenozide Australia 12/01/2001         ARfD not necessary; not acutely toxic and short-term dosing produced no significant general toxicity or adverse effects on foetal development.
1-Methylcyclopropene Australia 10/10/2003         There was insufficient information to establish an ARfD; however, based on its proposed pattern of use the dietary intake is likely to be low.
Methylisothiocyanate Australia 26/02/2004 0.0005 200 0.1 Dog acute oral toxicity study; based on clinical signs indicative of GIT irritation/corrosion at 1 mg/kg and higher. Foci of reddening were observed in some organs (unspecified) at the next highest dose of 0.5 mg/kg. The safety factor was increased due to the possibility that inflammatory lesions formed but reversed during the 14-day period between treatment and necropsy.
Metrafenone Australia 13/04/2010         The ARfD for metrafenone has not been established and there is not sufficient data to enable a ARfD to be set.
Metribuzin Australia 31/07/2009 0.25 100 25 Study using 25, 75, 200 mg/kg bw/day: serum T4 levels reduced gestation day 16, increased by gestation day 20 at two higher doses. Thyroid gland weights up on both days at 2 higher doses. NOEL chosen on basis effect may have ocurred with single daily dose. At the highest dose there were reduced placental weights, reduced mean foetal weight, increased rib deformation and delayed ossification. No embryotoxic or teratogenic effects were noted at any dose.
Mevinphos Australia 05/12/2000 0.003 10 0.025 Inhibition of RBC AchE activity, and clinical signs, in a 28-day human study. LOEL = 0.03 mg/kg bw.  
Milbemectin Australia 29/04/2005 0.06 100 6 Based on a developmental study in rats  
Monepantel Australia 31/08/2009         The ARfD for monepantel has not been established and there is not sufficient data to enable an ARfD to be set
Monocrotophos Australia 05/12/2000 0.0006 10 0.006 No inhibition of RBC AchE activity in a 28-day human study (male students) at 0.0057 mg/kg bw/d, the highest dose tested.  
Moxidectin Australia 28/03/2002 0.01 100 1 Dog 28-day dietary study; Clinical signs observed after 4 days treatment at 4mg/kg bw/d. Rabbit developmental study. Maternal toxicity (reduced weight gain at 5 mg/kg) with onset from approx. day 3 of dosing.  
Naled Australia 12/12/2000 0.01 100 1 Cholinergic signs and RBC AchE  inhibition in a 28-day study in rats.  LOEL = 10 mg/kg bw/d.  
N-coco-1,3-diaminopropane Australia 10/12/2003         ARfD not necessary; as it will not result in human exposure via the diet.
Neem limonoids Australia 28/05/2004         ARfD not established; insufficient information.
N-oleyl-1,3-diaminopropane Australia 10/12/2003         ARfD not necessary; as it will not result in human exposure via the diet.
Novaluron Australia 17/01/2001         ARfD not necessary; low toxicity following single dose and short-term administration in animals, including studies on developmental toxicity.
Nuclear polyhedrosis virus of helicoverpa armigera occlusion bodies Australia 17/12/2003         ARfD not necessary; unlikely to be toxic following a single administration.
Octenol Australia 15/11/2004         ARfD not necessary; not intended to be used in food commodities.
Oestriol Australia 05/02/2004         ARfD not necessary; not intended for use in food production.
Omethoate Australia 20/10/2005 0.003 100 0.25 An acute oral neurotoxicity study in rats, based on inhibition of cholinesterase activity at 0.35 mg/kg bw and above.  
Ortho-Phenylphenol Australia 31/07/2003         ARfD not necessary; compound has low acute toxicity.
Paraquat Australia 27/06/2003 0.004 100 0.45 1-year dog chronic feeding study, with pulmonary lesions at the next highest dose of 0.93/1.0 mg/kg bw/d. The NOEL for pulmonary lesions after acute exposure is likely to be similar to that in the 1-year dog study because in a range of other studies, the formation of lesions occurred after single exposure, with severity independent of dosing duration.
Parathion Australia 5/12/2000 0.01 10 0.125 No clinical signs or inhibition of RBC AchE activity in a 35-day human study (5 males), at the highest dose tested of 7.5 mg/person/d.  
Parathion-methyl Australia 05/12/2000 0.03 10 0.3 Inhibition of RBC AchE activity in a 30-day human study. LOEL = 0.42 mg/kg bw. Supported by a NOEL in a 4-week mouse study of approx. 3.75 mg/kg bw/d.
Penflufen Australia 10/10/2012 0.5 100 50 The ARfD for penflufen was established at 0.5 mg/kg/bw/d based on a NOAEL of 50 mg/kg/bw/d in an acute neurotoxicity study in rats for decreased motor and locomotor activity in female rats, and using a default 100-fold safety factor.  
Penthiopyrad Australia 01/02/2012 0.75 100 75 The ARfD is established at 0.75 mg/kg bw/d using the lowest NOAEL of 75 mg/kg bw/d for both maternal and foetal toxicity from a rabbit developmental toxicity study based on abortion in one animal and slightly lower foetal weight at the next higher dose level (225 mg/kg bw/d) and using a default safety factor of 100.  
Pinoxaden Australia 29/08/2005 0.3 100 30 Based on rat and rabbit developmental toxicity studies.  
Porcine Gonadotrophins Australia 25/06/2002         ARfD not necessary.
Potassium bicarbonate Australia 26/02/2004         ARfD not necessary; use of potassium bicarbonate on food crops will not result in residues distinguishable from natural levels of this compound.
Procymidone Australia 13/12/2004 0.03 100 3.5 Rat developmental toxicity study; based on decreased anogenital distance in male fetuses at the next highest dose of 12.5 mg/kg bw/d.  
Prohexadione-calcium Australia 11/01/2006 1.5 100 150 Occurance of foetal abortions in rabbits at the next highest dose of greater than or equal to 200 mg/kg bw/d.  
Propineb Australia 12/04/2010 2 100 196 In a acute neurotoxicity study, a NOEL of 196 mg/kg bw was established for propineb based on urine stain in females at the next highest dose.  
Propionibacterium freudenreichii Australia 04/09/2002         ARfD not necessary; the micro-organisms are used in the manufacture of food for human consumption.
Propylene Oxide Australia 21/04/2006 0.4 500 205 Inhalational developmental toxicity study in rats; based on increased litter incidence of an accessory 7th cervical rib at the highest dose of 340 mg/kg bw. The ARfD was based on route-to-route extrapolation, with equivalent oral doses being derived from inhalational doses. The safety factor included an additional factor of 5 because of the uncertainty associated with the use of route-to-route extrapolation.
Propylenethiourea (PTU) Australia 16/02/2007 0.003 100 0.32 Foetal skeletal variations observed in rats at the next highest dose of 1.2 mg/kg bw/d.  
Proquinazid Australia 06/12/2011 0.2 100 19 The ARfD for proquinazid was established at 0.2 mg/kg bw/d based on a LOAEL of 19 mg/kg bw/d in 90-day dietary study in dogs and using a default 100-fold safety factor to account for potential inter- and intra-species differences, which is considered sufficient for the minor and largely transient effects seen  
Prosulfocarb Australia 30/07/2007 0.4 100 40 Acute neurotoxicity study in rats; based on reduced motor activity at 200 mg/kg bw or greater oral gavage doses.  
Prothioconazole Australia 28/05/2008 0.03 100 3 Developmental toxicity study in rats; based on increased incidence of 14th rib, increased resorption, decreased little size, cleft palate, and decreased foetal weight gain at the next highest dose of 10 mg/kg bw/d and higher. The ARfD is also supported by an developmental toxicity study in rabbits, based on increased fetuses arthrogryposis and fetuses with multiple abnormalities at next highest dose of 10 mg/kg bw/d and higher. 0.03 mg/kg bw is a group ARfD for prothioconazole and prothioconazole-desthio.
Pyraclostrobin Australia 26/06/2008 0.05 100 5 Rabbit developments study; based on early resorptions at the next highest dose of 10 mg/kg bw/day and higher in rabbits.  
Pyraflufen-ethyl Australia 17/12/2004 0.2 100 20 Developmental study in rabbits; based on increased maternal mortality and morbidity at the next highest dose of 60 mg/kg bw/d.  
Pyrasulfotole Australia 20/08/2008 0.2 1000 200 Decreased motor and locomotor activity, uncharacterised staining of the fur at 200 mg/kg bw in a rat neurotoxicity study. Based on a LOEL.
Pyrethrins Australia 31/07/2003 0.2 100 20 Rat gavage acute neurotoxicity study; neurotoxicity at the next highest dose of 63 mg/kg bw/d (F). Adopted from JMPR ‘99.
Pyridalyl Australia 29/04/2004         ARfD not necessary; no adverse effects were observed following single oral administration.
Pyrimethanil Australia 19/05/2009 0.85 100 85 Occurence of maternotoxicity (alopecia, emaciation, hunched posture, decreased bodyweight gain and food consumption) at the next highest dose of 1000 mg/kg bw/d.  
Pyrithione Copper Australia 21/07/2004         ARfD not necessary; pyrithione is to be used as an antifouling paint on marine surface vessels.
Pyroxasulfone Australia 23/09/2011 0.1; 1000 100 The ARfD for pyroxasulfone was established at 0.1 mg/kg bw/d based on a NOAEL of 100 mg/kg bw/d in a developmental neurotoxicity study in rats, using a refined 1000-fold safety factor consisting of safety factors of 10 for each of potential intraspecies and interspecies variation, and an additional safety factor of 10 to account for the seriousness of the health effect of concern.  
Pyroxsulam Australia 14/04/2008       There are no effects in this toxicology database that could be attributed to a single dose Therefore an ARfD was not established.
Quinclorac Australia 13/09/2004 2 100 200 Acute oral toxicity study in mice by gavage; based on male mortality and clincal signs at the next highest dose of 600 mg/kg bw.  
Quinoxyfen Australia 15/01/2002         ARfD not necessary; no toxicological alerts which might conceivably be elicited by a single dose.
Ractopamine hydrochloride Australia 30/07/2002 0.001 100 0.13 Human study; based on increased heart rate at the next highest dose of 0.20 mg/kg bw.  
Rotenone Australia 20/12/2002         ARfD not established; due to the absence of an adequate toxicology database and lack of information on identity of tested material.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Australia 04/09/2002         ARfD not necessary; the micro-organisms are used in the manufacture of food for human consumption.
Saflufenacil Australia 31/08/2009 0.017 300 5.0 Based on a NOEL of 5 mg/kg bw/d in a rat developmental study with a 300-fold safety factor.  
Spinetoram Australia 5/05/2008         No ARfD has been established and no data were submitted to enable an ARfD to be set.
Spirotetramat Australia 26/05/2008 1 100 100 Occurrence of urine and perianal stain and decreased motor activity in rats at the next highest dose of ≥200 mg/kg bw/d.  
Spiroxamine Australia 02/07/2001 0.2 100 20 Acute oral neurotoxicity study in rats - marked decrease in landing footsplay at the next highest dose tested of 30 mg/kg bw.  
Sulfentrazone Australia 08/08/2006 0.1 100 10 Developmental toxicity study in rats, based on increased resorptions, decreased foetal body weights and skeletal variations at the next highest dose of 25 mg/kg bw/d. Embryo-/Foetotoxicity in the absence of maternal toxicity.
Sulfoxaflor Australia 27/06/2013 0.25 100 25 The ARfD for sulfloxaflor was established at 0.25 mg/kg bw based on a NOAEL of 25 mg/kg bw for transient neurotoxicity observed on day 1 of dosing in an acute oral neurotoxicity study and using a 100 fold safety factor (10 fold each for intra and interspecies variation).  
Sulfuryl Fluoride Australia 24/08/2006 0.3 100 31 No effects at the highest tested concentration of 300 ppm (31 mg/kg bw systematic exposure), in a short-term (2 days) inhalation neurotoxicity study (two 6-hr exposures in 30 hrs) in rats.  
Tepraloxydim Australia 19/05/2002 0.4 100 40 Rat developmental study; reduced foetal body weight and impaired ossification.  
Terbuthylazine Australia 04/05/2001         ARfD not necessary; no significant organ toxicity or developmental effects following short-term dosing.
Tetraconazole Australia 12/12/2002 0.2 100 16 In a 4-week dietary study in rats, clinical signs noted within one week at the next highest dose of 2,500 ppm (68.4/62.3 mg/kg bw/d in males/females) NOEL = 640 ppm (17.5/16 mg/kg  bw/d in males/females).  
Thiacloprid Australia 20/07/2001 0.03 100 3.1 Acute oral neurotoxicity study in rats.  Reduced motor & locomotor activity at the next highest dose of 11 mg/kg bw (females).  
Thiophanate-methyl Australia 15/02/2011 0.2 100 20 Increase in foetal skeletal variations (supernumerary ribs, reduced lumbar vertebrae) observed at 40 mg/kg bw/d in a developmental toxicity study in rats at maternotoxic doses. Although these variations occurred only in conjunction with maternotoxicity, it is considered possible that they were related to a single exposure.
Thiram Australia 2/07/2010 0.1 100 10 An ARfD for thiram has been established at 0.1 mg/kg bw/d, based on a NOEL of 10 mg/kg bw/d in an acute neurotoxicity study based on a reduction in motor activity and using a 100-fold safety factor.  
Tilmicosin Australia 29/08/2002 0.4 100 36 Oral dosing in dogs at 36 mg/kg bw/d for 4 days.  
Tolfenamic acid Australia 16/01/2001 0.005 100 [0.5] Lowest effective therapeutic dose (as a single dose) for treatment of pyresis in children.  
Trifloxysulfuron Australia 19/05/2002 6 100 600 Rat acute neurotox study; impaired locomotor activity at 2000 mg/kg bw.  
Tulathromycin Australia 16/08/2006 0.1 100 10 An ARfD of 0.1 mg/kg bw was established based on a LOEL of 100 mg/kg bw in the dog oral acute study using a safety factor of 1000.  
Ulocladium oudemansii Australia 12/12/2003         ARfD not necessary; although there were insufficient data to establish an ARfD, since no residues are anticipated, the establishment of an ARfD is not necessary.
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